Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru, Wikipedia),perhaps the globally most influential Latin American writer, "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat". He has written many essays, novels (comedies, historical novels, murder mysteries, political thrillers), and more.
What I find remarkable is that this native Peruvian writer could have been awarded despite his being right-wing these days. In the past, he would support Fidel Castro and similar stuff but he grew increasingly disenchanted which was moving him to the right side.
Llosa wrote e.g. The City and the Dogs and The Green House (no relationship to the greenhouse effect!) in the 1960s. In 1990, he was an unsuccessful presidential candidate against Fujimori. Llosa defended pro-free-market reforms.
It is surely a refreshing change after all those unknown writers who were awarded for being communists, feminists, and so on. One year is too little for me to consider the credibility of the Nobel prize in literature to be resuscitated but it is good sign, anyway.