Monday, April 01, 2013

AMS-02: dark matter is composed of a cosmic string

...and its shape seems very "wiggly"...

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer finally decided to expose its first batch of data at Princeton, two days before the talk at CERN. And it's pretty interesting. They detected a clear peak at the positron spectrum located at \(E=m_p/2\). Why would positrons carry the same energy as the proton mass?

As Fox News, The New York Times, and others mention, the explanation wasn't hard to realize. The device carried by the International Space Station is observing decays of protons via\[

p\to e^+ + \gamma

\] and the two final products approximately divide the initial energy of the proton. Why would protons decay in this way if we know from terrestrial experiments that the proton lifetime is at least \(10^{34}\,{\rm years}\) or so? Nobel prize winner Samuel Ting of MIT offered the consensual explanation by his collaboration, AMS-02, but I would dare to say that it may still be questioned.

They say that the proton decay is being catalyzed by a particular extra cosmic object that is only visible through the X-ray "eyes" of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. To verify this expectation, they had to find the detailed directions from which the \(468\MeV\) line originates. The observations made it clear that it's coming from a cosmic string, a dimension-one locus in the outer space.

At this moment, I must warn you against premature conclusions that various cranks could jump to in order to resuscitate their hopeless theories. What I am going to show you is the location of the cosmic string, as determined by AMS-02, and if you look very carefully, it is a completely random curve in space that can't possibly produce any excuse for supernatural interpretations such as the interpretation that it's actually a "text written by the creator". No comments.

The totally random curve looks like this:

Figure 1: the shape of the cosmic string as reconstructed from the \(468\MeV\) spectral line of AMS-02 depicted in light green and superimposed by the collaboration on the WMAP diagram of the sky. Image (C) MIT. Click to zoom in.

While the shape of the curve – depicted in light green – is very far from a straight curve, one that would minimize the energy, you may clearly see that the Fourier components encoding the shape are nothing else than noise so there's no reason to speculate. AMS-02 also added the helpful orange graphics representing the Fermi bubbles. Most of the cosmic string seems to be located inside our galaxy. It's apparently generating some extra curvature that has been assigned to "dark matter" for decades. But now the matter seems as clear as the sky.

You should also note that the equation of state of this matter \(p=-\rho/3\) in average (from the stress-energy tensor inside the cosmic world sheet) is somewhat different from what the cosmologists have believed for decades, \(p=0\). However, there is no real contradiction.

But I am sure that various crackpots and religious nuts will find something that isn't in the curve at all and use it to defend their preposterous theories. They will undoubtedly develop a whole would-be theoretical framework about the role of our galaxy in the scheme of things and perhaps connect this framework with some superstitions that people have been spreading roughly for 1980 years that have elapsed from the day when a Jewish guy was crucified by his countrymates through the day we call today.

The preprint will be released tomorrow in the morning, before the officially scheduled moment when other preprints are out, so during the following 15 hours, you may return to this web page several times an hour and try to click at the link in this paragraph.

Some U.S. science politics

I don't like to write about similar issues. But in mid February, TRF readers learned that Ernest Moniz of MIT would be nominated as the successor of Steven Chu, a new secretary of energy. Indeed, he was nominated two weeks later.

Today, the media are full of reports about the new Fermilab director and an illegitimate child of Dr Chu, namely Dr Hu, who will take the job after Pier Oddone who is retiring. I learned this breaking news from Joseph S.

Finally, Google has done it again, revolutionizing the communication technologies just like it has done so many times in the past. The corporation is introducing Gmail Blue (see which brings the e-mail experience to brand new level and may possibly absorb Microsoft Live Mail, cell phones, and sex in the bedroom.

You may also try Google Nose Beta because smelling is believing. I particularly liked the Lady Racine Marrakech perfume (a shortcut code to get the smell is #FF99AA88BB00 but don't forget the final 00, otherwise you will get the post-cabbage excrement).


  1. Clearly, this is a blatant rip-off of Gregory Benford's short story, "Applied Mathematical Theology", first published in Nature and republished in "Year's Best SF 12".

    Also, clearly, this has to be a fake. Everyone knows God's message to His creation is written in fire in letters thirty feet high on the far side of the Quentulus Quazgar Mountains in the land of Sevorbeupstry on the planet of Preliumtarn, which orbits the star Zarss, which is located in the Grey Binding Fiefdoms of Saxaquine.

    Finally, and very clearly, I lol'd. Much better than Dorigo's 4/1 post.

  2. I don't understand anything ? So what they have found is a cosmic string ? Thy didn't find any dark matter right?

  3. You had me going there for a minute. : ) Happy April, Lubos!

  4. Thanks... Never heard of Benford's story.

  5. It's a terminological subtlety whether cosmic strings, if confirmed as present and important, would be counted as dark matter. They're surely not fitting the normal models of dark matter that have been considered since the 1970s.

  6. Hmmm, I thought this was a guest blog by
    a "scientist" who writes papers of this quality all the time, whom I will only identify by his initials to avoid overadulation, particularly by himself-- L.(glug,glug) Smolin.

  7. The paper on arxiv mentioned in a blog comment a few days ago deserves reposting--

  8. ... yep, it is a stau, I can clearly see this :-P :-D ;-)

  9. The author may be making fun but he just plagiarized a piece of serious research, a corner stone of the feminist postmodern philosophy that discovered the variability of pi. See Alan Sokal, Social Text,

  10. appear me correct this preposition about some cosmic strings create the dark matter.but dark matter could be altered by scalar-vector tensor fields with topology changes.

  11. Surely we see that you jest.....and while wondering whether or not
    blackholes are somehow connected to each in some cosmic
    string.....surely then Fermi's
    are real then?

    While writing your opinion
    of the truth on the cosmic background, I am taken by the idea then that
    such speculations are still like some kind of fog, or rather, halo.

    orbital velocity data clearly indicates the presence of gravitational
    mass, and the term "dark matter" is used to describe
    See: Dark

    I mean what else can it be, some God particle perhaps? :) Ya okay, I fell for it. :) You...You....

  12. I told Katie, our golden retriever, about Google Nose and now she wants to use my iPad. The problem is that the gets it all slobbery.

  13. Out of some "Random Pattern Generator" there always contains "some bits of truth. :)


  14. This is interesting in that even the universe may be a conspiracy. In fact, it may be the ultimate conspiracy.

  15. Gregory Benford is a very wellknown sci fy writer. Also hi is a teacher at some american university working in the field of astrophysics, specifically magnetics fields in black holes and the like (including maybe some work in cosmic strings).

  16. For on-topic TRF-readers in tardy time-zones:

    Yesterday, I theoretically fell in through a hole in "inner space" - i.e. not the 3-D space we 'sensibly perceive' but in the 6 compactified dimensions.

    Just thought I'd let you know. %-|

  17. thejollygreenmanApr 3, 2013, 1:12:00 PM

    Hi Lubos,

    So its settled. God speaks English!

  18. Hi! A possible loophole might be that you misidentified who is the father of Jesus Christ.

  19. Logic Insists dark matter does NOT exist. Taking that bigbangtheory THEN darkmatterforces WOULD have been strongest at the more condensed start and for that have their biggest accelerating force back then. And would decline in time and BY THAT their accelerating influence.What possibly then even would have been seen as a dé-celleration regarding gravityforces.

    So I Do Think darkmatter does Not exist as a big bang universe as the hubbleconstante as quantummechanics as einstein as timespacecoupling as timegravitycoupling as gravitylenses as higgsbosons as higgsfields do Not exist As I Think higgsbosons are Not involved in gravity or in the weak force or decay.

    Also as I Said below already darkmatter and Matter would drive eachother out and would each create pulled together force islands that would have produced multiple random flightdirections by force assymetry for Masses in the Universe.